|Initial publication||W. Mazurczyk, S. Wendzel, S. Zander et al. in .
However, this pattern is based on the original P4. PDU Corruption/Loss Pattern, which was introduced by S. Wendzel, S. Zander, B. Fechner, C. Herdin in . The pattern P4 was split up into two separate patterns (the Frame Collisions pattern and Artificial Loss pattern). P4 was later also re-invented for user-data as PS21. User-data Corruption, cf. .
|Illustration||The sender causes artificial frame collisions to signal hidden information.|
|Context||Network Covert Timing Channels → Protocol-aware|
 S. Wendzel, S. Zander, B. Fechner, C. Herdin: Pattern-based Survey and Categorization of Network Covert Channel Techniques, ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 47, Issue 3, pp. 50:1-26, ACM, 2015.
An early version of the article is available here: download.
 W. Mazurczyk, S. Wendzel, S. Zander, A. Houmansadr, K. Szczypiorski: Information Hiding in Communication Networks, Wiley, 2016. Chapters 3 and 8 contain discussions on hiding patterns, basically on the basis of  but with an extension of timing-based patterns.
 W. Mazurczyk, S. Wendzel, K. Cabaj: Towards Deriving Insights into Data Hiding Methods Using Pattern-based Approach, in Proc. Second International Workshop on Criminal Use of Information Hiding (CUING 2018) at ARES, pp. 10:1-10:10, ACM, 2018.