|Initial publication||S. Wendzel, S. Zander, B. Fechner, C. Herdin in |
|Illustration||A covert channel re-transmits previously sent or received PDUs.|
|Context||Network Covert Timing Channels -> Protocol-aware|
See  for two additional examples of such hiding techniques based on the re-transmission pattern.
|Known Pattern-based Countermeasures||
 S. Wendzel, S. Zander, B. Fechner, C. Herdin: Pattern-based Survey and Categorization of Network Covert Channel Techniques, ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 47, Issue 3, pp. 50:1-26, ACM, 2015.
An early version of the article is available here: download.