The following list represents the latest pattern collection that was published in , and improved by  and . Additional minor updates were provided by  and . Each pattern comprises a number (pattern ID), the authors and publication reference where the pattern was first published*, a brief illustration of the pattern's use, a context (where can the pattern be found in the hierarchy of patterns) and a link to publications which provide evidence for the existence of the pattern.
* Please note that the author of a pattern is not necessarily the inventor of a particular hiding technique. Instead he/she is the one who recognized the pattern within different hiding techniques. The authors of the particular hiding techniques are listed in the `Evidence' attribute of each pattern.
|Latest Version of the Hiding Patterns Hierarchy (based on ; updated by , ,  and ), version: Feb-05-2021.|
Protocol-agnostic Covert Timing Channel Patterns:
PT1. Inter-packet Times
PT2. Message Timing
Protocol-aware Covert Timing Channel Patterns:
PT10. Artificial Loss
PT11. Message Ordering (PDU Order)
PT13. Frame Collisions
PT15. Artificial Reconnections (NEW)
Structure Modifying Covert Storage Channel Patterns:
PS1. Size Modulation
PS2. Sequence, incl. sub-patterns
PS3. Add Redundancy
Structure Preserving Covert Storage Channel Patterns:
PS10. Random Value
PS11. Value Modulation, incl. sub-patterns (UPDATED)
User-data Agnostic Covert Storage Channel Patterns:
PS20. Payload Field Size Modulation (derived from PS1)
PS21. User-data Corruption
User-data Aware Covert Storage Channel Patterns:
PS30. Modify Redundancy
PS31. User-data Value Modulation and Reserved/Unused
Video Introduction to Patterns: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ztPHur0LUY
Implementation: Most of these patterns, excluding the payload-specific patterns, can be created with the CCEAP tool.
 S. Wendzel, S. Zander, B. Fechner, C. Herdin: Pattern-based Survey and Categorization of Network Covert Channel Techniques, ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 47, Issue 3, pp. 50:1-26, ACM, 2015.
An early version of the article is available here: download.
 W. Mazurczyk, S. Wendzel, S. Zander, A. Houmansadr, K. Szczypiorski: Information Hiding in Communication Networks, Wiley, 2016. Chapters 3 and 8 contain discussions on hiding patterns, basically on the basis of  but with an extension of timing-based patterns.
 W. Mazurczyk, S. Wendzel, K. Cabaj: Towards Deriving Insights into Data Hiding Methods Using Pattern-based Approach, in Proc. Second International Workshop on Criminal Use of Information Hiding (CUING 2018) at ARES, pp. 10:1-10:10, ACM, 2018.
 A. Velinov, A. Mileva, S. Wendzel, W. Mazurczyk: Covert Channels in MQTT-based Internet of Things, IEEE ACCESS, Vol. 7, pp. 161899-161915, 2019.
 A. Mileva, A. Velinov, L. Hartmann, S. Wendzel, W. Mazurczyk: Comprehensive Analysis of MQTT 5.0 Susceptibility to Network Covert Channels, Computers & Security, Elsevier, 2021.